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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. In a post hoc analysis of samples collected inwe determined seroprevalence of parvovirus 4 PARV4 among elderly Cameroonians. PARV4 seropositivity was associated with receipt of intravenous antimalarial drugs, intramuscular streptomycin, or an intramuscular contraceptive, but not hepatitis C virus seropositivity.

Findings suggest parenteral acquisition of some PARV4 infections. In separate studies that used PCR, PARV4 was subsequently documented in autopsy tissues from IDUs and persons with hemophilia; in bone marrow aspirates from patients with AIDS; and in the blood of transplant recipients, hemodialysis patients, and infants in Ghana 2 — 5.

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In Although PARV4 presence in IDUs and hemophilia patients suggests parenteral transmission 78this route has not yet been studied and other modes of transmission have not been ruled out. Duringto investigate the epidemiology of PARV4 in Africa, we tested for PARV4 antibodies in serum samples collected during a study of a defined population of elderly Cameroonians among whom prevalence of hepatitis C virus HCV infection was high. exposures to parenteral and sexual risk factors had been documented for this population 10 — 12indicating that this population had been excessively exposed to improperly sterilized syringes and needles and that the main risk factor for HCV was the administration of intravenous antimalarial drugs, mostly before The ethics committees of the Cameroonian Ministry of Health and the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada approved the study and follow-up specimen testing.

The study was conducted in Ebolowa, southern Cameroon Exclusion criteria were dementia or inability to communicate. With cooperation from community leaders, we visited a convenience sample of houses to identify participants. We obtained venous samples from participants and gathered sociodemographic data and information about past intravenous treatment for any disease, past parenteral treatment for infectious diseases, transfusions, scarifications, and circumcision. Vaccine scars were documented. Serologic assays for HCV and treponemal antibodies were described in the original study by Pepin et al.

Variables associated with PARV4 seropositivity in univariate analysis were tested in logistic regression models through nonautomated Pennington-TX oral sex selection, continuing until no other variable reached ificance. Each variable was then eliminated to assess its effect by using likelihood ratio tests. Seventy-nine PARV4 antibodies were more prevalent among persons 60—64 years of age than among older persons Table 1.

The prevalence of anti-PARV4 increased, but not ificantly, with exposure to intravenous treatments in general. PARV4 seropositivity was not associated with treatments delivered by injection against yaws, syphilis, leprosy, or trypanosomiasis data not shown or with sexually transmitted infections.

PARV4 seropositivity was less common among persons who had a vaccine scar on the left arm. In multivariate analysis Table 2PARV4 seropositivity was associated with younger age, intravenous receipt of antimalarial drugs, and parenteral receipt of antituberculosis treatment the latter was of borderline ificance and was less common among persons with a left-sided vaccine scar. The same factors as in the main analysis were associated with PARV4 seropositivity; receipt of intravenous antimalarial drugs was not ificant in the smaller sample.

We retrospectively analyzed samples obtained during a study of elderly Cameroonians from an area where HCV infection was hyperendemic and in which we had collected much information about potential parenteral modes of transmission of blood-borne viruses but less information about other routes Because this was a cross-sectional study, the time sequence of exposure routes and PARV4 infection could not be determined. Thus, our should be considered exploratory.

The sensitivity, specificity, and ability of our assay to identify seroconversions are comparable to those of PCR-based methods for determining active infections and past exposure 7 — 9 Exclusion of samples showing low antibody levels that might represent nonspecific reactivity had little effect on the analysis of risk factors.

The provide Pennington-TX oral sex evidence for parenteral transmission of PARV4 in the study community.

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This risk factor was found for half of the population we studied, whereas intramuscular Depo-Provera and streptomycin were administered to few patients. In univariate analysis, PARV4 seropositivity was also more common in patients treated with oral antituberculosis drugs. Although the seroprevalence of PARV4 increased with past exposure to intravenous treatments in general, this finding was not statistically ificant because antibodies against PARV4 were common among persons who reported no such treatments.

This finding, and the lack of association between PARV4 and HCV seropositivity, suggests that other, nonparenteral modes of transmission existed. PARV4 seropositivity was more common in persons 60—64 years of age than in older persons. This finding has 3 potential explanations.

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First, exposure to the virus might have fluctuated over time. Second, titers of antibodies against PARV4 might progressively wane, eventually leading to false negative. Third, PARV4 infection might increase long-term risk for death, although this explanation seems unlikely. Absence of a vaccine scar on the left arm was associated with PARV4 seropositivity.

Historical and epidemiologic data suggest that in Cameroon, the left side was used for smallpox vaccine and the right Pennington-TX oral sex for Mycobacterium bovis BCG 14 Failure of scar development after smallpox vaccination might reflect immunologic characteristics associated with greater susceptibility to PARV4 infection. Our findings suggest that some parenteral transmission of PARV4 occurred among elderly Cameroonians, but parenteral transmission might not have been the main route of infection.

The association with past tuberculosis, although perhaps coincidental, is intriguing and deserves further study. Initial data collection was funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research. Her principal research interest is the epidemiology of bloodborne viruses in Cameroon. Human parvovirus 4 infection, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Journal List Emerg Infect Dis v. Emerg Infect Dis. Myriam LavoieColin P. PybusRichard Njouomand Peter Simmonds. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer.

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Lavoie, J. Sharp, C. Pennington, P. Simmonds. Foupouapouognigni, R. Njouom. Corresponding author. Copyright notice. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In a post hoc analysis of samples collected inwe determined seroprevalence of parvovirus 4 PARV4 among elderly Cameroonians.

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Characteristic No. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Pennington-TX oral sex of study participants and human parvovirus 4 infection in multivariate analysis, Cameroon, Conclusions We retrospectively analyzed samples obtained during a study of elderly Cameroonians from an area where HCV infection was hyperendemic and in which we had collected much information about potential parenteral modes of transmission of blood-borne viruses but less information about other routes References 1.

DNA viruses identified in patients with acute viral infection syndrome. J Virol. Parvoviruses in blood donors and transplant patients, Italy. Parvovirus 4 in French in-patients: a study of hemodialysis and lung transplant cohorts. J Med Virol. Novel human parvovirus 4 genotype 3 in infants, Ghana.

Epidemiology of human parvovirus 4 infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Parenteral transmission of the novel human parvovirus PARV4. High frequencies of exposure to the novel human parvovirus, PARV4 in haemophiliacs and injecting drug users detected by a serological assay for PARV4 antibodies.

J Infect Dis. HCV transmission during medical interventions and traditional practices in colonial Cameroon: potential implications for the emergence of HIV Clin Infect Dis. The hepatitis C virus epidemic in Cameroon: genetic evidence for rapid transmission between and Infect Genet Evol. Noble goals, unforeseen consequences: the control of tropical diseases in colonial central Africa and the iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne viruses. Trop Med Int Health. Serodiagnosis of primary infections with human parvovirus 4, Finland.

Blanchard M. Brunel M. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Intravenous treatment for other diseases. Yes, treated with oral drugs only.

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Yes, treatment included streptomycin.

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Human Parvovirus 4 Infection, Cameroon