Campina grande women

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Providing cutting-edge scholarly communications to worldwide, enabling them to utilize available resources effectively. We aim to bring about a change in modern scholarly communications through the effective use of editorial and publishing polices. E-mail : karlaceatox yahoo. Background : Blood tests like clotting time and bleeding time are tools that help physicians to predict snake envenomings and their management. Clinical and epidemiological data of those individuals to de which cities show the majority of the accidents were also made.

: Pain was the most referred local manifestation by the individuals bitten by the snake B. Four patients presented haemorrhage after envenoming returning to normal after treatment.

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The predominance among male aging between 20 to 30 years old shows that this age range is the most affected by snake bites. In this study was observed the prevalence of the agriculture activity and the rural area. Haemorrhage was the most systemic manisfestation observed in this study. Conclusion : In the present study we verified the importance of evaluating hematological parameters on snake envenomings in accordance with clinical and epidemiological data. Snake envenomings are a health problem mainly in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries.

In Brazil occur almost People bitten by Bothrops erythromelas show local effects at the site of the bite like oedema, ecchymosis, blisters and necrosis; systemic manifestations like gengival bleeding, hematuria and epistaxis, as well as blood disturbances [2].

As most of envenomed individuals do not see the snake at the moment of the bite and also do not bring the species to the hospital, diagnosis is based on clinical features [4]. Those clinical features also help physicians to classify envenomation as mild, Campina grande women or severe, which will drive the treatment [5]. Local swelling at the site, bleeding and shock are used as prognostic, although those features have not been tested rigorously [4].

Only two works immunologically evaluated individuals bitten by snakes. Barraviera et al. In that work it was observed an increase of IL-6 and IL-8 in all patients on the first days after envenomation. Laboratorial data showed leukocitosis, leucopenia and neutrofilia. Immunological evaluation after snake bites is not largely studied, as well as, not well known on individuals bitten by snakes.

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The project that originated this paper was approved by the ethics committee of the hospital and all patients included in the study Campina grande women to participate. Third five patients admitted to the hospital in Campina Grande with clinical diagnosis of Bothrops envenoming were included in this study.

After a clinical evaluation, patients were classified as mild, moderate or severe envenomed. The mild group was characterized by a local swelling, local bleeding and mild hemorrage; the moderate goup was characterized by more severe swelling, local bleeding and hemorrage; the sever group was classified as presented severe swelling, local bleeding and blisters, and severe hemorrage. In each group individuals received specific antivenom.

The antivenom therapy was started as soon as possible to all individuals. Patients were studied as far as 48 hours after entrance at the hospital. In order to understand epidemiological features of Bothrops envenomation in PB, information of patients included: name, local of event, time, area urban or ruralage, sex, as well as site of bite, type of snake, time between bite and entrance at the hospital, haemorrage, swelling, clotting time, plateletscomplete blood count, bleeding time, local necrosis and systemic bleeding.

Individual blood samples 20 ml were collected by venipuncture on admission, 24 hours and 48 hours after envenomation. Platelets were counted electronically in a automatized system Counter 19 — Wiener Lab. It is important to clarify that CDC and of platelets were performed only under medical prescription. Epidemiological evaluations is a transversal study using indirect documentation on snake envenomations attended in Campina Grande from June to December, All include patients presented medical diagnosis for Bothrops envenomation. Total whole blood cell counting TWBCC was not possible to analyze statistically once not all patients had this parameter prescribed by the physician.

However, this is an important parameter to evaluate, for example, to know the type of leucocytes involved in this envenomation before and after treatment. Epidemiological analysis was carried out in order to evaluate important parameters as local of occurrence of the accident, like rural or urban areas, city Campina grande women occurrence, sex, age, local of the bite, of vials used for treatment and time between bite and hospital admission.

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The city is a converge pole, with around neighbors cities, which drive to Campina Grande searching for services offered, including health services [9]. Twenty seven patients had a confirmatory diagnosis of Bothrops envenoming based on the clinical observation and laboratorial tests. Sixteen patients were classified as mild envenomation, seven patients were classified as moderate envenomation and three were classified as severe envenomation.

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Platelet count was as their lowest in only three patients as follows: two mild and one severe envenomation. This data do not corroborate other studies [10] which claims that thrombocytopenia is a marked statistically ificant process developed on envenomations by Bothrops species. Clotting time was altered in 22 patients raising 12 hours after treatment, except for two of them which were yet incoagulable after treatment Figure 1. Bleeding time was not altered in any patients. Figure 1. Coagulability of patients bitten by Bothrops erythromelas snake venom. Figure 2. Distribution of Bothrops erythromelas bites according to seasonality — from June to December, Figure 3.

Time distribution of patients bitten by Bothrops erythromelas — June to December, Pain was the most referred local manifestation, in 22 patients, followed by edema. Systemic disorders were observed like hemorrhage [4] and head ache [7]. Blood platelets play an important role in hemostasis, starting the development of hemostatic plugs [11]. In this study it was observed that of the twenty-seven patients evaluated only 3 presented low levels of platelet counts before treatment.

This result is in agreement with studies Campina grande women. As low levels of platelet counts is related to the severity of envenomation we can suggest that the patients included in this study presented most mild envenomation as their platelet counts were normal. Sano-martins et al. Simple coagulation tests can be used to diagnose systemic envenoming and control the antivenom doses [14]. Envenomation inflicted by snakes of the Viperidae family is usually characterized by prominent local effects such as necrosis, haemorrhage, edema and pain [17,18].

Those effects, however, are not well neutralized by the antivenom used [11,19], even though, they are the only effective treatment for snake bite envenomation [20]. In the present study we observed that pain was the most referred local manifestation by the individuals bitten by the snake B. These data corroborate with other studies, either experimental [19,21] or with humans [1,11,22]. There is a high Campina grande women of components on Bothrops venoms that compromise haemostasis. So that it is common a high frequency of bleeding caused by this type of envenomation.

Those bleedings can be distinguished as local and systemic [13].

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In the majority of the cases bleeding is stopped after antivenom therapy, although some brain bleeding has been related in some cases which can lead patient to death [23]. In the present study 4 patients presented haemorrhage after envenoming returning to normal after Campina grande women. All 4 patients were classified as moderate or severe envenomation and the type of haemorrhage was epistaxis and gingival haemorrhage. These data may indicate the insertion of young men in the work more than women.

In Northeast region of Brazil it is observed a greater activity in the planting and harvest periods Table 2. So that it may have a correlation between the frequency of snake bites and the period for planting and harvest [9]. Those inferences reinforce the fact that snake bites as a work accident.

Furthermore, these data confirm the obtained by Kastiriratne et al. Seasonality for snake bites must be taken as an important fact which can drive educational prevention. In Southern and South of Brazil snake accidents usually occur from October to April which is the most warm and rainy period of the year for those regions Brazil, [24]. In Northeastern the accidents occur mostly between May and September with decay after October [9]. Victims were most affected in the inferior members as feet and finger feet.

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So that the use of protection equipments as gloves and boots are indicated Table 3. Mild envenomations were the most observed in this study. This is in accordance with period between Campina grande women and hospital care and also with other authors [5,27].

Although [10] showed that time between bite and hospital care is not related. The most clinical features observed in this study were pain and edema. It is well known that Bothrops evenomings are characterized by pain, edema, haemorrhage, local necrosis, ecchimosis, blisters [1,2] Table 4. Haemorrhage was the most systemic manifestation observed in this study, as also related by other authors [10,28] followed by headaches. This haemorrhage was soon stopped after antivenom therapy, except for one patient who presented epistaxis and remained bleeding for more 2 days after treatment Table 5.

Table 5. Systemic manifestations after Bothrops erythromelas snake bite. In the present study we verified the importance of evaluating hematological parameters on snake envenomings in Northeastern Brazil, specially on Bothrops envenomation. These data will allow us to better understand the variations on the different envenomings as well as to de better approaches on new therapies. Also, epidemiological data can lead us to corroborate with a more accurate notification for this type of health problem. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Take a look at the Recent articles. Key words epidemiology, snake envenomation, clinics Introduction Snake envenomings are a health problem mainly in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Methods Patients The project that originated this paper was approved by the ethics committee of the hospital and all patients included in the study consent to participate. Blood samples Individual blood samples 20 ml were collected by venipuncture on admission, 24 hours and 48 hours after envenomation. Statistical analysis Epidemiological evaluations is a transversal study using indirect documentation on snake envenomations attended in Campina Grande from June to December, Total whole blood cell counting Total whole blood cell counting TWBCC was not possible to analyze statistically once not all patients had this parameter prescribed by the physician.

Epidemiological evaluation Epidemiological Campina grande women was carried out in order to evaluate important parameters as local of occurrence of the accident, like rural or urban areas, city of occurrence, sex, Campina grande women, local of the bite, of vials used for treatment and time between bite and hospital admission.

Clinical evaluation Clinical evaluation of all patients was performed by the medical staff of the hospital. Platelets Platelet count was as their lowest in only three patients as follows: two mild and one severe envenomation. Clotting time and bleeding time Clotting time was altered in 22 patients raising 12 hours after treatment, except for two of them which were yet incoagulable after treatment Figure 1. Epidemiological evaluation Table 1 shows the characterization of snake envenomations attended and notified at the CEATOX-PB, following social and demographic variables.

Distribution of Bothrops erythromelas snake bites by sex. Area Rural 24 Urban 3 Total 27 Table 2. Distribution of snake Bothrops erythromelas bites by area. Anatomical site of bite. Clinical evaluation Pain was the most referred local manifestation, in 22 patients, followed by edema. Discussion Blood platelets play an important role in hemostasis, starting the development of hemostatic plugs [11]. Local manifestations after Bothrops erythromelas snake bite.

All rights reserv Haemorrhage was the most systemic manifestation observed in this study, as also related by other authors [10,28] followed by headaches. Conclusions In the present study we verified the importance of evaluating hematological parameters on snake envenomings in Northeastern Brazil, specially on Bothrops envenomation. Pediatr Emerg Care Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins 1: Q J Med Toxicon Haddad Jr, et al. Blood Rev 7: Alterations of the blood coagulation system after accidental human inoculation by Bothrops jararaca venom. Braz J Med Biol Res PLoS Med 5: e

Campina grande women

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